BACK PAIN SCIENCEline

How To Break the Vicious Cycle of Back Pain

The Real Cause of Back Pain

ARTICLES OF SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCEline

The Posture Saver has been designed and built according to the principles of evidence based science. The following is a limited list of abstracts of scientific articles, that support and corroborate all the ideas and concepts behind the Posture Saver. I hope you take the time to enjoy these documents.

1. http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(99)90052-7/abstract
Altered trunk muscle recruitment in people with low back pain with upper limb movement at different speeds.

2. http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/127/10/2339.short
Does anticipation of back pain predispose to back trouble?

3. http://ptjournal.apta.org/content/88/9/1061.full.pdf+html?sid=8bdcef4d-6446-4424-8239-a7a7023a6cb2
Electromyography for assessment of pain in low back muscles.

4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17336546
Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain

5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071225
Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment.

6. http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/131/8/2161.long
Reorganization of the motor cortex is associated with postural control deficits in recurrent low back pain.

7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18628693
Motor control learning in chronic low back pain.

8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17762795
Failure to use movement in postural strategies leads to increased spinal displacement in low back pain.

9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174584
Spinal muscle evaluation in healthy individuals and low-back-pain patients: a literature review.

10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621667
Lumbar spine reposition sense: the effect of a “slouched” position.

11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336330
Pro-inflammatory cytokines expression increases following low and high magnitude cyclic loading of lumbar ligaments.

12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703727
High magnitude cyclic load triggers inflammatory response in lumbar ligaments.

13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20228708
People with recurrent low back pain respond differently to trunk loading despite remission from symptoms.

14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22884190
Abdominal muscle feed forward activation in patients with chronic low back pain Is largely unaffected by 8 weeks of core stability training.

15.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525973
Effect of lumbar stabilization  and dynamic lumbar strengthening exercises in patients with chronic low back pain.

16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22884190
Abdominal muscle feed forward activation in patients with chronic low back pain Is largely unaffected by 8 weeks of core stability training.

17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17895350
Effectiveness of an extension-oriented treatment approach in a subgroup of subjects with low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16809211
The association of physical deconditioning and low back pain: a hypothesis-oriented systematic review.

19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16461178
Trunk-strengthening exercises for chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100719
Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture.

21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11793153
Increase in strength after active therapy in chronic low back pain patients: muscular adaptation and clinical relevance.

22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594388
Treatment and ergonomics training of work-related low back pain and body posture problems for nurses.

23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18415391
[Preventing pain attacks by low back school training.]

24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19501348
Differences in feedforward  trunk muscle activity in subgroups of patients with mechanical low back pain.

25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22024899
Spinal position sense and trunk muscle activity during sitting and standing in non specific chronic low back pain: classification analysis.

26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21530268
Postural recovery following arm movement is impaired in people with chronic low back pain.

27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071225
Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment.

28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19331469
People with low back pain exhibit decreased variability in the timing of their anticipatory postural adjustments.

29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21120303
Segmental stabilization and muscular strengthening in chronic low back pain: a comparative study.

30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926279
Specific trunk and general exercises elicit similar changes in anticipatory postural adjustments in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594876
Persons with recurrent low back pain exhibit a rigid postural controlled strategy.

32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22464112
Acute repetitive lumbar syndrome: a multi-component insight into the disorder.

33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=tsuboi+T%2C+satou+T
Spectral analysis of electromyogram in lumbar muscles: fatigue induced endurance contraction.

34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17336546
Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain.

35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476489
Immediate changes in feedforward postural adjustments following voluntary motor training.

36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22595702
Altered preparatory pelvic control during the sit-to-stance-to-sit movement in people with non-specific low back pain.

37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174584
Spinal muscle evaluation in healthy individuals and low-back-pain patients: a literature review.

38. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10597049
Fiber type characteristics and function of the human paraspinal muscles: normal values and changes in association with low back pain.

39. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=mannion+af%2C+weber+br%2C+dvorak+j
Fiber type characteristics of the lumbar paraspinal muscles in normal healthy subjects and in patients with low back pain.

40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668417/
Muscle strength in adolescent men and future musculoskeletal pain: a cohort study with 17 year of follow-up.

41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=faber+A%2C+sell+l%2C+hansen+jv
Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

42. http://columbiapain.org/documents/multifidus.pdf
Why do some patients keep hurting their back: evidence of ongoing back muscle dysfunction during remission from recurrent back pain.

43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11317113
Active therapy for chronic low back pain: part 2. Effects on paraspinal muscle cross sectional area, fiber type size, and distribution.

44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254037
Individual patient education for low back pain.

45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17254322
Are  MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain?

46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21333720
Changes in excitability of corticomotor inputs to the trunk muscles during experimentally –induced acute low back pain

47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=henry+de%2C+chiodo+ae%2C+yang+w
Central nervous system reorganization in a variety of chronic pain states: a review.

48. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18410991
Chronic pain may change the structure of the brain.

49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113288
Abnormal brain in chronic back pain: an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12817660
cortical reorganization and chronic back pain: implications for rehabilitation.

51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14872506
Evidence of augmented central pain processing in idiopathic chronic back pain.

52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586062
[ Central pain processing in chronic low back pain. Evidence for reduced pain inhibition ]

53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19889986
Brain gray matter decrease in chronic back pain is the consequence and not the cause of back pain.

54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21489967
Structural brain imaging: a window into chronic pain.

55. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/6/1398.long
Beyond feeling: chronic pain hurts the brain, disrupting the default-mode network dynamics.

56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073183
Visualization of painful experiences believed to trigger the activation of affective and emotional brain regions in subjects with low back pain.

57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15548656
Chronic back pain is associated with decreased prefrontal and thalamic gray matter  density.

58. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20518076
Thalamic atrophy associated with painful osteoarthritis of the hip is reversible after arthroplasty: a longitudinal voxel-based morphometric study.

59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22311467
Corticomotor control of deep abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain and anticipatory postural adjustments.

60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022493
Brain morphological signatures for chronic pain.

61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16551917
magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects biochemical changes in the brain associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary report.

62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703727
High magnitude cyclic load triggers inflammatory response in lumbar ligaments.

63. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080205171755.htm
Chronic pain harms the brain.

64. http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/other/brain-injury/brain-atrophy-chronic-pain-call-enhanced-treatment
Brain atrophy with chronic pain: A call for enhanced treatment.

65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757486
Compression garments and recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage: a meta-analysis.

66. http://www.news-medical.net/news/20130918/Abnormalities-in-brain-axons-predispose-people-to-chronic-back-pain-after-injury.aspx
Abnormalities in brain axons predispose people to chronic back pain after injury.

67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335219
Reorganization of hippocampal functional connectivity with transition to chronic back pain.

68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24040975
Brain white matter structural properties predict transition to chronic pain.

69. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3020172/
Effectiveness of a “global postural reeducation” program for persistent low back pain: a non-randomized control trial.

70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543704
The school of posture as a postural training method for Paraiba telecommunications operators.

71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508915
Quality of life improved by multidisciplinary back school program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a single blind randomized controlled trial.

72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20135613
Comparison of trunk muscle strength of soccer players with and without low back pain.

73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18328151
Effectiveness of a back school program in low back pain.