ARTICLES OF SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCEline

The Posture Saver has been designed and built according to the principles of evidence based science. The following is a limited list of abstracts of scientific articles, that support and corroborate all the ideas and concepts behind the Posture Saver. I hope you take the time to enjoy these documents.

1. http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(99)90052-7/abstract
Altered trunk muscle recruitment in people with low back pain with upper limb movement at different speeds.

2. http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/127/10/2339.short
Does anticipation of back pain predispose to back trouble?

3. http://ptjournal.apta.org/content/88/9/1061.full.pdf+html?sid=8bdcef4d-6446-4424-8239-a7a7023a6cb2
Electromyography for assessment of pain in low back muscles.

4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17336546
Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain

5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071225
Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment.

6. http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/131/8/2161.long
Reorganization of the motor cortex is associated with postural control deficits in recurrent low back pain.

7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18628693
Motor control learning in chronic low back pain.

8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17762795
Failure to use movement in postural strategies leads to increased spinal displacement in low back pain.

9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174584
Spinal muscle evaluation in healthy individuals and low-back-pain patients: a literature review.

10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16621667
Lumbar spine reposition sense: the effect of a “slouched” position.

11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336330
Pro-inflammatory cytokines expression increases following low and high magnitude cyclic loading of lumbar ligaments.

12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703727
High magnitude cyclic load triggers inflammatory response in lumbar ligaments.

13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20228708
People with recurrent low back pain respond differently to trunk loading despite remission from symptoms.

14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22884190
Abdominal muscle feed forward activation in patients with chronic low back pain Is largely unaffected by 8 weeks of core stability training.

15.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23525973
Effect of lumbar stabilization  and dynamic lumbar strengthening exercises in patients with chronic low back pain.

16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22884190
Abdominal muscle feed forward activation in patients with chronic low back pain Is largely unaffected by 8 weeks of core stability training.

17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17895350
Effectiveness of an extension-oriented treatment approach in a subgroup of subjects with low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16809211
The association of physical deconditioning and low back pain: a hypothesis-oriented systematic review.

19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16461178
Trunk-strengthening exercises for chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100719
Individuals with non-specific low back pain use a trunk stiffening strategy to maintain upright posture.

21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11793153
Increase in strength after active therapy in chronic low back pain patients: muscular adaptation and clinical relevance.

22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22594388
Treatment and ergonomics training of work-related low back pain and body posture problems for nurses.

23. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18415391
[Preventing pain attacks by low back school training.]

24. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19501348
Differences in feedforward  trunk muscle activity in subgroups of patients with mechanical low back pain.

25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22024899
Spinal position sense and trunk muscle activity during sitting and standing in non specific chronic low back pain: classification analysis.

26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21530268
Postural recovery following arm movement is impaired in people with chronic low back pain.

27. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20071225
Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment.

28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19331469
People with low back pain exhibit decreased variability in the timing of their anticipatory postural adjustments.

29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21120303
Segmental stabilization and muscular strengthening in chronic low back pain: a comparative study.

30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926279
Specific trunk and general exercises elicit similar changes in anticipatory postural adjustments in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18594876
Persons with recurrent low back pain exhibit a rigid postural controlled strategy.

32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22464112
Acute repetitive lumbar syndrome: a multi-component insight into the disorder.

33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=tsuboi+T%2C+satou+T
Spectral analysis of electromyogram in lumbar muscles: fatigue induced endurance contraction.

34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17336546
Persistence of improvements in postural strategies following motor control training in people with recurrent low back pain.

35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476489
Immediate changes in feedforward postural adjustments following voluntary motor training.

36. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22595702
Altered preparatory pelvic control during the sit-to-stance-to-sit movement in people with non-specific low back pain.

37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17174584
Spinal muscle evaluation in healthy individuals and low-back-pain patients: a literature review.

38. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10597049
Fiber type characteristics and function of the human paraspinal muscles: normal values and changes in association with low back pain.

39. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=mannion+af%2C+weber+br%2C+dvorak+j
Fiber type characteristics of the lumbar paraspinal muscles in normal healthy subjects and in patients with low back pain.

40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668417/
Muscle strength in adolescent men and future musculoskeletal pain: a cohort study with 17 year of follow-up.

41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=faber+A%2C+sell+l%2C+hansen+jv
Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

42. http://columbiapain.org/documents/multifidus.pdf
Why do some patients keep hurting their back: evidence of ongoing back muscle dysfunction during remission from recurrent back pain.

43. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11317113
Active therapy for chronic low back pain: part 2. Effects on paraspinal muscle cross sectional area, fiber type size, and distribution.

44. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254037
Individual patient education for low back pain.

45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17254322
Are  MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain?

46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21333720
Changes in excitability of corticomotor inputs to the trunk muscles during experimentally –induced acute low back pain

47. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=henry+de%2C+chiodo+ae%2C+yang+w
Central nervous system reorganization in a variety of chronic pain states: a review.

48. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18410991
Chronic pain may change the structure of the brain.

49. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11113288
Abnormal brain in chronic back pain: an in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

50. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12817660
cortical reorganization and chronic back pain: implications for rehabilitation.

51. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14872506
Evidence of augmented central pain processing in idiopathic chronic back pain.

52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16586062
[ Central pain processing in chronic low back pain. Evidence for reduced pain inhibition ]

53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19889986
Brain gray matter decrease in chronic back pain is the consequence and not the cause of back pain.

54. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21489967
Structural brain imaging: a window into chronic pain.

55. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/6/1398.long
Beyond feeling: chronic pain hurts the brain, disrupting the default-mode network dynamics.

56. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22073183
Visualization of painful experiences believed to trigger the activation of affective and emotional brain regions in subjects with low back pain.

57. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15548656
Chronic back pain is associated with decreased prefrontal and thalamic gray matter  density.

58. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20518076
Thalamic atrophy associated with painful osteoarthritis of the hip is reversible after arthroplasty: a longitudinal voxel-based morphometric study.

59. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22311467
Corticomotor control of deep abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain and anticipatory postural adjustments.

60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022493
Brain morphological signatures for chronic pain.

61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16551917
magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects biochemical changes in the brain associated with chronic low back pain: a preliminary report.

62. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19703727
High magnitude cyclic load triggers inflammatory response in lumbar ligaments.

63. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080205171755.htm
Chronic pain harms the brain.

64. http://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/pain/other/brain-injury/brain-atrophy-chronic-pain-call-enhanced-treatment
Brain atrophy with chronic pain: A call for enhanced treatment.

65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757486
Compression garments and recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage: a meta-analysis.

66. http://www.news-medical.net/news/20130918/Abnormalities-in-brain-axons-predispose-people-to-chronic-back-pain-after-injury.aspx
Abnormalities in brain axons predispose people to chronic back pain after injury.

67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335219
Reorganization of hippocampal functional connectivity with transition to chronic back pain.

68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24040975
Brain white matter structural properties predict transition to chronic pain.

69. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3020172/
Effectiveness of a “global postural reeducation” program for persistent low back pain: a non-randomized control trial.

70. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11543704
The school of posture as a postural training method for Paraiba telecommunications operators.

71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21508915
Quality of life improved by multidisciplinary back school program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a single blind randomized controlled trial.

72. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20135613
Comparison of trunk muscle strength of soccer players with and without low back pain.

73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18328151
Effectiveness of a back school program in low back pain.